Commit 07852157 authored by Gautham Velchuru's avatar Gautham Velchuru
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# Fdb version 3
["pdflatex"] 1528063299 "all_study_guide.tex" "all_study_guide.pdf" "all_study_guide" 1528063300
["pdflatex"] 1528063324 "all_study_guide.tex" "all_study_guide.pdf" "all_study_guide" 1528063325
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......@@ -117,10 +117,10 @@
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(generated)
"all_study_guide.pyg"
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This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.18 (TeX Live 2017/Arch Linux) (preloaded format=pdflatex 2018.3.16) 3 JUN 2018 15:01
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entering extended mode
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file:line:error style messages enabled.
......@@ -817,14 +817,9 @@ File: ts1cmr.fd 2014/09/29 v2.5h Standard LaTeX font definitions
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\OT1/cmr/m/n/10 Call-by-value means that ev-ery-thing is copied upon en-ter-ing a func-tion.Languages
[]
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Output written on all_study_guide.pdf (19 pages, 154017 bytes).
Output written on all_study_guide.pdf (19 pages, 153994 bytes).
PDF statistics:
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72 compressed objects within 1 object stream
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......@@ -381,8 +381,8 @@ All three are ways of capturing the environment on definition. However, the lexi
\begin{minted}{haskell}
elem x :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool -- a is part of the Eq type class
\end{minted}
A type class is essentially an interface - if a type is part of a type class, it implements
the required behavior. \\
A type class is essentially an interface -- if a type is part of a type class, it implements
the required behavior.
You can also define your own types, including recursive types:
......@@ -583,12 +583,13 @@ We don't need to specify the types of the map twice, since it is obvious from th
Higher-order functions are functions which either take in a function as an argument or return one, such as map and filter.
\subsection{Parameter Passing}
\subsubsection{Call-By-Value}
Call-by-value means that everything is copied upon entering a function.Languages such as Ruby, Java, etc do "pass-by-pointer", ie they are still pass-by-value, but the
Call-by-value means that everything is copied upon entering a function.
Languages such as Ruby, Java, etc do "pass-by-pointer", ie they are still pass-by-value, but the
value is a pointer. What this means is that if you pass in an array, you can edit it, but
changing the reference will not do anything.
\subsubsection{Call-by-reference}
Call-by-reference means we pass in a \textit{reference} to the object - so, it can be reassigned, edited, etc.
Call-by-reference means we pass in a \textit{reference} to the object -- so, it can be reassigned, edited, etc.
\subsubsection{Call-by-name}
Call-by-name is somewhat of an older concept. It means that we evaluate the object every time we reference it within the method. It can
be emulated with thunks in Racket:
......
likes(fred,beer).
likes(fred,cheap_cigars).
likes(fred,pro_wrestling).
likes(sue,jogging).
likes(sue,kale).
likes(sue,bicycling).
likes(sue,amy_goodman).
likes(mary,jogging).
likes(mary,kale).
likes(mary,bicycling).
likes(mary,rush_limbaugh).
health_freak(X) :-
likes(X,kale),
likes(X,jogging).
left_wing(X) :-
likes(X,amy_goodman).
right_wing(X) :-
likes(X,rush_limbaugh).
low_life(X) :-
likes(X,cheap_cigars).
prerequisite(cse142,cse143).
prerequisite(cse143,cse311).
prerequisite(cse311,cse312).
prerequisite(cse143,cse331).
prerequisite(cse143,cse341).
/* take_before(A,B) succeeds if you must take A before B */
take_before(X,Z) :- prerequisite(X,Z).
take_before(X,Z) :- prerequisite(X,Y),
take_before(Y,Z).
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